By Walter Rüegg
By way of concentrating on the liberty of medical learn, instructing and research, the medieval collage constitution used to be modernized and enabled discoveries to develop into a qualified, bureaucratically-regulated task of the college. This opened the way in which for the triumphant march of the ordinary sciences, and resulted in pupil movements--resulting within the college being eventually forged within the function of a castle of political fight in a world-wide struggle for freedom. additionally to be had: quantity 1: Universities within the heart a while 0-521-36105-2 Hardback $140.00 C quantity 2: Universities in Early smooth Europe (1500-1800) 0-521-36106-0 Hardback $130.00 C
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Additional info for A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800-1945) (A History of the University in Europe)
24 Themes also waged a battle to make Flemish the only official language of Flanders and thus bring about political liberation from French Walloon domination. This was also true for the common representation of student interests in education in terms of self-help organizations and federations, especially their more active application towards a general social goal. The Russian agitation of the 1860s for the abolition of serfdom, which set off an emotional reaction in student groups and unions that kept the movement alive, is but one example.
43 41 42 43 See chapter 13, 529 (as already mentioned on p. 13). See chapter 10, 415–16. For details see European Universities and Similar Institutions in Existence Between 1812 and the End of 1944. ¨ ‘Starke der mystischen Regungen, welche von einzelnen Abenteurern in die Volksseele getragen werden . . ’ See Virchow, ‘Grundung’ (note 40), 27. 19 ¨ Walter Ruegg Virchow spoke on ‘The Passage from the Age of Philosophy to the Age of Natural Sciences’. ’44 Philosophy in Germany was something different from what it was in France or Great Britain, because it had lost something of the sense of intellectual life in general; this was no small matter, since the German elite had not built up enough intellectual antibodies to combat pseudo-scientific ideologies.
10 Public education was therefore run as a branch of state administration. The academic degrees and the means of selection by competition and examination, which had been established under the old regime, were integrated into a hierarchy: the baccalaureate was essential to obtaining a post in a college, the license allowed for promotion to college chairs and higher offices, the agr´egation, a competitive examination, gave ‘access to careers in administration . . 11 The proof that this system of merit was linked to 8 9 11 Loi du 10 mai 1806, Art.