A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder by J. R. Partington

By J. R. Partington

For almost six hundred years, from the battles of the early fourteenth century to the losing of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, firearms derived from gunpowder and different chemical compounds outlined the frightful quantity of conflict. The equipment and fabrics utilized in international struggle i'd were primary to our distant ancestors. during this vintage paintings, first released in 1960, James Riddick Partington presents a global survey of the evolution of incendiary units, Greek hearth, and gunpowder.Greek fireplace, a composition Partington believes was once made from a distilled petroleum fraction and different materials (but now not saltpetre), used to be such a lot famously utilized in the sieges of Constantinople and the Crusades. Partington strikes from its antecedents—other incendiaries utilized in historical warfare—to ecu gunpowder recipe books ( The Latin publication of fireplace, Bellifortis, and Feuerwerkbuch) and the historical past of infernal machines, mines, canon, small palms, and artillery. His ebook comprises chapters on gunpowder and guns in Muslim lands, India, and China—including hearth books, using gunpowder as a propellant, the artillery of the Mughal Emperors, and using saltpetre in explosives. He lines the advance of gunpowder to eleventh-century China and cites the 1st identified point out and imagine of a firearm in 1326. "The heritage of gunpowder and firearms has attracted many authors with various pursuits. the overall historian needs to take account of significant innovations effecting revolutions within the lifetime of countries. The historian of technology is worried ordinarily with the discovery of gunpowder. The historian of know-how examines the advance within the manufacture of explosives and guns, and how during which gunpowder has stumbled on functions within the peaceable arts. the army historian bargains ordinarily with using gunpowder as an explosive and a propellant... and the improvement of firearms and their use in conflict. No fresh ebook in English (or for that topic in any language) has tried a concise survey of the subject."—from the Preface

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Abhl. K. Preuss. Akad. -hist. Kl. Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Berlin. Ann. Chim. Annales de Ghimie, Paris. Archaeological J. Archaeological Journal. f. d. Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik. Archiv fur die Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik. Arch. Gesch. Math. Naturwiss. u. d. Technik. Archiv fur die Geschichte der Mathematik, der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik. Aretaios. De diuturn.

Xxxi The references are to those f]]f xxxii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Ency. Islam. Encylclopaedia of Islam. English Histor. Rev. English Historical Review. , folio, folios; f°, folio size of book. Galen («) De compos, med. sec. loc. De Compositione Medicamentorum secundum Locos, {b) De simpl. med. fac. De Temperanientis et Facultatibus Simplicium Medicamentorum. (c) Method. Medend. Medendi Methodus. , 1821-33). Geological Soc. America Spec. Paper. Geological Society of America, Special Papers, New York.

Yet Alexios I, who became emperor in 1081, whilst enforcing payment of taxes in gold coin, issued "gold" coins which were almost entirely c o p p e r . " ^ Nikephoros I I I (1077-81) and Isaac Angelos (1085-95) also debased the coinage, never it is true to the alarming extent of the modern British "silver" coinage, innocent of even a trace of noble metal. D. 12 A HISTORY OF GREEK FIRE AND GUNPOWEER we find that a new threat has appeared at the very gates of the city: the Arabs. D. D. 285, to 813.

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