A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science by John Losee

By John Losee

Designed for first-time readers of the topic, this stimulating advent bargains a historic exposition of differing perspectives at the philosophy of technology. With concise profiles proposing the key philosophers whose contributions are mentioned during this booklet, Losee explores the long-argued questions raised through philosophers and scientists concerning the right evaluate of technology.

This re-creation comprises modern advancements within the self-discipline, together with fresh paintings on theory-appraisal, experimental perform, the controversy over medical realism, and the philosophy of biology. Taking a balanced and informative strategy, this paintings is the precise introductory quantity.

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He attacked the Pope’s claim of temporal supremacy, insisting on the divinely ordained independence of civil authority. He appealed to the prior pronouncements of Pope Nicholas III in a dispute with Pope John XXII over apostolic poverty. And he defended the nominalist position that universals have objective value only in so far as they are present in the mind. Ockham took refuge in Bavaria for a time while his writings were under examination at Avignon. No formal condemnation took place, however.

The debate over saving the appearances Osiander on Mathematical Models and Physical Truth The question of proper method in astronomy was still debated in the sixteenth century. The Lutheran theologian Andreas Osiander affirmed the tradition of saving the appearances in his Preface to Copernicus’s De revolutionibus. Osiander argued that Copernicus was working in the tradition of those astronomers who freely invent mathematical models in order to predict the positions of the planets. Osiander declared that it does not matter whether the planets really do revolve around the sun.

He noted that the spectra seen in rainbows, mill-wheel sprays, boat-oar sprays, and the spectra produced by passing sunlight through water-filled glass spheres, shared certain common characteristics. Proceeding by induction, he “resolved” three elements which are common to the various instances. These elements are () that the spectra are associated with transparent spheres, () that different colours result from the refraction of light through different angles, and () that the colours produced lie on the arc of a circle.

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